Mongol Invasion of Europe
Fall of Baghdad 1258 سقوط بغداد
Uploaded by namirkh2 on Feb 14, 2008
The Battle of Baghdad in 1258 was a victory for the Mongol leader Hulagu Khan, a grandson of Genghis Khan. Baghdad was captured, sacked, and burned.
Many historical accounts detailed the cruelties of the Mongol conquerors:
The Grand Library of Baghdad, containing countless precious historical documents and books on subjects ranging from medicine to astronomy, was destroyed. Survivors said that the waters of the Tigris ran black with ink from the enormous quantities of books flung into the river.
Citizens attempted to flee, but were intercepted by Mongol soldiers who killed with abandon. Martin Sicker writes that close to 90,000 people may have died. Other estimates go much higher. Wassaf claims the loss of life was several hundred thousand. Ian Frazier of The New Yorker says estimates of the death toll have ranged from 200,000 to a million.
The Mongols looted and then destroyed mosques, palaces, libraries, and hospitals. Grand buildings that had been the work of generations were burned to the ground.
The caliph was captured and forced to watch as his citizens were murdered and his treasury plundered. According to most accounts, the caliph was killed by trampling. The Mongols rolled the caliph up in a rug, and rode their horses over him, as they believed that the earth was offended if touched by royal blood. All but one of his sons were killed, and the sole surviving son was sent to Mongolia. Hulagu had to move his camp upwind of the city, due to the stench of decay from the ruined city.
Uploaded by PIETRASZE on Mar 11, 2011
Yuuthai923 さんが 2011/12/03 にアップロード
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A trekking path has been constructed by Pemalang Regency administration in the mangrove forest in Mojo Village, Pemalang, Central Java. Mangroves planted in 2000-2003 has, indeed, become a forest