3月 252012
 
 2012年3月25日  アジア, 旅行

National geographic – Marco Polo – The China Mystery Revealed

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=y954EhO_mKY

Uploaded by NosferatuQQ on Oct 4, 2011

Marco Polo (English pronunciation: /ˈmɑrkoʊ ˈpoʊloʊ/ ( listen); Italian pronunciation: [ˈmarko ˈpɔːlo]; c. 1254 — January 9, 1324) was a Venetian merchant traveler from the Venetian Republic whose travels are recorded in Il Milione, a book which did much to introduce Europeans to Central Asia and China. He learned about trading whilst his father and uncle, Niccolò and Maffeo, travelled through Asia and apparently met Kublai Khan. In 1269, they returned to Venice to meet Marco for the first time. The three of them embarked on an epic journey to Asia, returning after 24 years to find Venice at war with Genoa; Marco was imprisoned, and dictated his stories to a cellmate. He was released in 1299, became a wealthy merchant, married and had 3 children. He died in 1324, and was buried in San Lorenzo.

Their pioneering journey inspired Christopher Columbus and others. Marco Polo’s other legacies include Venice Marco Polo Airport, the Marco Polo sheep, and several books and films. He also had an influence on European cartography, leading to the introduction of the Fra Mauro map.


3月 252012
 
 2012年3月25日  アジア

Fall of Baghdad 1258 سقوط بغداد

Uploaded by namirkh2 on Feb 14, 2008

The Battle of Baghdad in 1258 was a victory for the Mongol leader Hulagu Khan, a grandson of Genghis Khan. Baghdad was captured, sacked, and burned.

Many historical accounts detailed the cruelties of the Mongol conquerors:

The Grand Library of Baghdad, containing countless precious historical documents and books on subjects ranging from medicine to astronomy, was destroyed. Survivors said that the waters of the Tigris ran black with ink from the enormous quantities of books flung into the river.
Citizens attempted to flee, but were intercepted by Mongol soldiers who killed with abandon. Martin Sicker writes that close to 90,000 people may have died. Other estimates go much higher. Wassaf claims the loss of life was several hundred thousand. Ian Frazier of The New Yorker says estimates of the death toll have ranged from 200,000 to a million.
The Mongols looted and then destroyed mosques, palaces, libraries, and hospitals. Grand buildings that had been the work of generations were burned to the ground.
The caliph was captured and forced to watch as his citizens were murdered and his treasury plundered. According to most accounts, the caliph was killed by trampling. The Mongols rolled the caliph up in a rug, and rode their horses over him, as they believed that the earth was offended if touched by royal blood. All but one of his sons were killed, and the sole surviving son was sent to Mongolia. Hulagu had to move his camp upwind of the city, due to the stench of decay from the ruined city.